Natural ecosystems, made up of abiotic factors (air, water, rocks, energy) and biotic factors (plants, animals, and microorganisms). The Earths biosphere, including the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), and litosphere (land), constitutes a feedback of cybernatic system that reflects what Rene Dubos referred to as "a co-evolutionary process" between living things and their physical and chemical environments. Ecosystem is made up of many smaller ecosystems interlocked through cycles of energy and chemical elements. The flow of energy and matter through ecosystems, therefore, is regulated by the complex interactions of the energy, water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and other cycles that are essential to the functioning of the biosphere. (Eblen and Eblen, 1994, p. 185)
Rudolf Husar firstname.lastname@example.org Last updated 10/26/94.